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“Military grade” nerve agent – what does it mean?

The phrase “military grade” keeps coming up when talking about chemical warfare materials. The last few years have seen repeated use of chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict, where the vast majority of instances are war crimes committed by the Syrian state, as well as the unfortunate acts of Russian chemical terrorism in and around Salisbury in England.


The Putin regime uses blackmail against its people and the West

As its confrontation with the West grows, Russia is increasing its use of elements of diplomatic blackmail, both veiled and direct. In general, threats and fear-mongering are some of the main tools of the Putin regime, primarily in domestic policy, where they serve as an essential means of ensuring the loyalty and obedience of the population. However, the Kremlin actively uses the same tactics beyond its borders as well, trying to win concessions from Western leaders. Let's look at the main types of Putin’s blackmail inside and outside Russia.


State TV used by pro-Russian leader for political aims in Republika Srpska

A state TV station in Bosnia and Herzegovina has fallen under the control of right-wing pro-Russian populists who use it to pursue their political interests.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's unusual internal structure, the result of the 1995 Dayton Peace Accord, has been the subject of long debate and detailed analysis. A country with three (or five) presidents, two ‘entities’ and one district has one of the most complicated and cumbersome state apparatuses in the world.


The Effectiveness of Chemical Weapons: The Banal Truth

The on-going use of chemical warfare agents in Syria and the use of a so-called “Novichok” agent for an attempted assassination the UK have brought non-stop commentary - some from the Kremlin designed to mislead, some simply ill-informed - on the nature of chemical weapons. Chemical warfare agents (the actual chemical compounds used for chemical warfare) and chemical weapons (the systems which employ them) are subjects that are not well understood except by specialists, so some degree of uninformed commentary is to be expected.

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